Climate Change and Forests of the Future: Managing in the Face of Uncertainty

This article offers a conceptual framework for managing forested ecosystems given the uncertainty of the impacts of climate change. The article addresses both mitigation and adaptation strategies. The adaptation strategies presented include resistance options (forestall impacts and protect highly valued resources), resilience options (improve the capacity of ecosystems to return to desired conditions after disturbance), and response options (facilitate transition of ecosystems from current to new conditions).

Publication Date: 2007

Authors or Affiliated Users:

  • Constance I. Millar
  • Nathan L. Stephenson
  • Scott L. Stephens

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Resource Category:

Resource Types:

  • Planning guides
  • Scenario planning


  • Invasive species and pests

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