Direct Potable Reuse: A Path Forward

This report identifies the information and research needed to provide a basis for the feasibility of direct potable reuse (DPR), which is the introduction of purified water into a water supply distribution system or the raw water supply immediately upstream of a water treatment plant. Topics discussed include issues regarding public acceptance, engineering, economics, and regulations. Although the background information on DPR and the needed research identified in this report are applicable across the country and throughout the world, the primary focus is on providing information so that the feasibility of DPR can be evaluated in California.

The purpose of this report is to provide a general overview of current (2011) knowledge related to DPR, and to identify the information that must develop through targeted studies to inform the public, public and private water agencies, and regulatory agencies regarding the feasibility of implementing DPR as a viable water supply management option. 


Reflecting the increased interest in DPR, then Governor Schwarzenegger of the State of California signed into law Senate Bill 918 in September 2010. This bill mandated that the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) adopt uniform water recycling criteria for indirect potable reuse (IPR) for groundwater recharge by the end of 2013.



Publication Date: 2011

Authors or Affiliated Users:

  • George Tchobanoglous
  • Harold Leverenz
  • Margaret H. Nellor
  • James Crook

Related Organizations:

  • WateReuse Research Foundation


Resource Category:

Resource Types:

  • Best practice

States Affected:


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