Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP) 4.4: Preliminary Review of Adaptation Options for Climate-Sensitive Ecosystems and Resources

This report is one in a series of 21 Synthesis and Assessment Products (SAPs) produced between 2004 and 2009 by the U.S Climate Change Science Program, aimed at providing current assessments of climate change science in the U.S. to inform public debate, policy, and operational decisions.

This SAP focuses on adaptation options for key representative ecosystems and resources that may be sensitive to climate variability and change. It presents adaptation options, as well as potential barriers and opportunities, for federally managed systems including: National Forests, National Parks, National Wildlife Refuges, Wild and Scenic Rivers, National Estuaries, and Marine Protected Areas. Case studies throughout the report examine in greater detail some of the issues, challenges, and potential opportunities associated with implementation of adaptation options on federally managed lands. 

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Publication Date: June 2008

Authors or Affiliated Users:

  • Susan H. Julius
  • Jordan M. West
  • Jill S. Baron
  • Linda A. Joyce
  • Peter Kareiva
  • Brian D. Keller
  • Margaret Palmer
  • Charles Peterson
  • Michael J. Scott

Related Organizations:


Resource Category:

Resource Types:

  • Policy analysis/recommendations


  • Air temperature
  • Ocean acidification
  • Permafrost melt
  • Precipitation changes
  • Sea-level rise
  • Water temperatures
  • Wildfires

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